When analysing blowback from United States-counterterrorism drone strikes in Yemen, Hudson, Owens and Callen (2012) found evidence for a long-term political blowback in addition to short(er)-term blowback such as destabilization, retaliation attacks, enhanced recruitment of extremist militia. They argue that air operations in the long term undermine the legitimacy and authority of a government, a vacuum which might be filled by groups such as, Al-Qaeda or Ansar al-Sharia.
Hudson, L., Owens, C. S., & Callen, D. J. (2012). Drone Warfare in Yemen: Fostering Emirates through Counterterrorism? Middle East Policy, 19(3), 142–156.